The work by Pérez (2003) gives a new dimension to the analysis of the governance of organisations as it includes the three levels of governance by Henry (2001) in the analysis. The author proposes an interpretation of the fundamentals and of the problems caused by “corporate governance”, such as information asymmetry, the entrenchment of managers, procedures to “discipline” them (Pesqueux, 2007) but he goes further by proposing to analyse the following issues:
– the system used in an organisation ;
– the support systems ;
– the regulation system ;
– the operational tools of “corporate governance” directed towards stakeholders ;
– the behaviour of financial players ;
– the behaviour of managers.
In order to analyse the different elements, Perez distinguished five progressive levels of governance – from the management of an organisation to the legal and societal context in which it operates – which represent the numerous angles of description and analysis of the current governance of an organisation.
Perez takes into account the cultural sensitivity of players in an organisation, especially when he described different types of governance across countries and continents where the organisation is managed, but also when paying attention to new behaviours such as those that are qualifiedsocially responsible”.
Applied to organisations, the management and governance systems can be integrated from (at least) three levels up to five levels (in the best cases, if we can define a meta–states’ or nations’ level), according to the territorial coverage of the organisation. Like a Russian Doll, the management systems of organisations fit successively into each other through their governance and regulation systems: five levels for the organisation of management systems which are linked to the governance systems:
- Level 1: Management of organisations or “corporate governance” by their managers.
- Level 2: Governance or “management of management” by the authorities of each organisation (statutes, board, general assembly …).
- Level 3: Regulation or “management of governance” by specific devices: professional organisations, administrative Authorities (dedicated authorities), jurisdiction bodies.
- Level 4: Harmonisation of regulation systems or “governance of governance” through political means (laws, regulations), by judicial appeal.
- Level 5: Metagovernance: basic principles concerning the organisation of collective life: at the level of states (constitutions) at the international level (international treaties).
This model is applicable to all kinds of organisations such as those from the voluntary sector and particularly large NGOs such as the IOC and the IFs. It could certainly become the analysis model that the future governance monitoring agency of the world of sports could use as an audit system.